12 February, 2017

The Effects of the Temperature of Amylase on the Breakdown...

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biochemistrygirls Hwang Sone

Experiment 3: Enzyme Kinetics Experiment


1. To determine the effects of substrate concentration, pH, and temperature on enzyme activity.


Enzymes are protein molecule that acts as biological catalysts. Without changing of the overall process, they increase the rate of reactions. Enzymes are long chains of amino acids bound together by peptide bonds. Besides that, they are seen in all living cells and controlling the metabolic processes in which they converted nutrients into energy and new cells. Other than that, enzymes also help in the breakdown of food materials into its simplest form. The reactants of enzyme catalyzed reactions are termed substrates and each enzyme is quite specific in character, acting on a particular substrates to produce a particular products. The central approach for studying the mechanism of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is to determine the rate of the reaction and its changes in response with the changes in parameters such as substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and known as enzyme kinetics. The substrate concentration, [S] is one of the important parameter that affecting the rate of a reaction that catalyzed by an enzyme. However, studying the effects of substrate concentration is elaborated by the fact that


1  Enzymes are globular proteins which catalyse metabolic reactions.
2  Each enzyme has an active site with a specific shape, into which the substrate molecule or molecules fit precisely. This is the lock and key hypothesis – the substrate is compared with a key which fits precisely into the lock of the enzyme.

3  The lock and key hypothesis has been modified. The modern hypothesis is called the induced fit
hypothesis. The active site is no longer regarded as a rigid structure like a lock, but as a flexible structure which can change shape slightly to fit precisely the substrate molecule.

4  When the substrate enters the active site, an enzyme–substrate complex is temporarily formed in which the R groups of the amino acids in the enzyme hold the substrate in place.

5  Enzymes may be involved in reactions which break down molecules or join molecules together.

6  Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of the reactions they catalyse.

7  The course of an enzyme


IB Biology IA , IB Chemistry IA, EE Biology and EE Chemistry 
IA and EE on Vitamin C quantification 

1. Ammonium Oxalate, prepared by dissolving 0.08g ammonium oxalate in 100ml pH 5 buffer
2. Vit C (0.001M ), prepared by dissolving 0.018g of Vit C in 100ml ammonium oxalate solution
3. Perform 2 fold dilution on 0.001M Vit C.
4. Add 1 ml Vit C into a quartz cuvette and 2ml of ammonium oxalate ( as a stabiliser )
5. Leave for 10 mins
6. Prepare a blank with 1ml water and 2 ml ammonium oxalate
7. Set up UV spectrophotometer at 266nm and quantify.
Result shown below


nurulwahyuni19 Nurul wahyuni dewi
A.    Background
Inside the body of life creatures, chemistry reaction was happened. Reactions which were happening in their bodies happen in temperature 27 oC (room temperature), for example on plant bodies. Beside that, it also can happen in teperature of 39 oC, for example inside the body of awarm blood animal. In that temperature , oxidation process will be happen slowly
or even doesn’t happen. So that the reaction will be happen faster we need catalysator for it. Catalysator is a subtance which can make the reaction work faster than before without join on that reactions. Catalysator inside the cells of life creature is called biocatalysator or we know that as enzyme.
Because of enzyme’s function is to make the reaction more faster and it doesn’t join to the reaction, so the amount is not too much. One molecule of enzyme can work many times during the enzyme was not damaged. Working of an enzyme was influenced by some factors, that temperature, pH,product, and inhyibitor. For knowing how far the factors influence the work of enzyme, where we took pH to observed, so we did this experiment to know about the factors which influence the work of enzyme.
A chemistry reaction



Characteristics of Living Organisms - 

1. Movement - eg: towards food, away from predators
2. Reproduction - for species to survive
3. Sensitivity - reacting to changes in their surroundings
4. Nutrition - energy, growth and repair, eg: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals
5. Excretion - waste products removed, eg: carbon dioxide, urine
6. Respiration - releases energy from food
7. Growth - developing

Cells - 

Animal cells - 
- Nucleus - contains genetic material and chromosomes
                 control's cells activities
                 surrounded by its own membrane
- Cell membrane - outer surface of the cell


nutritionalconference Murali Krishnam Raju. P
Nutrition Events Meetings | 2017 | List of Upcoming Current Asia: Food Science Meetings Events | List of Upcoming Cu...: Food Science Meetings Events | List of Upcoming Current Asia | 2017: Influencing of Guava Processing Residues Incorpora... : Influencing of ...

Thermal Stability of β-Amylase Activity and Sugar Profile of
Sweet Potato Varieties during Processing
Mensah EO1,2*, Ibok O1, Ellis WO1 and Carey EE2

1Food Science and Technology Department, College of Science,
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2International Potato Centre (CIP), c/o CSIR-CRI, P.O. Box
3785, Kumasi, Ghana

*Corresponding Author:
Mensah EO
Food Science and Technology Department
College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and
Kumasi, Ghana
Tel: 233547335237
E-mail: e.owusu@cgiar.org, kyofresh@gmail.com
Received date: February 10, 2016; Accepted date: June 1,
2016; Published date


Update ~ RS2 and RS3 are Not Exactly the Same Thing

(Hat tip: M. McEwen) Feeding raw potato (RS2) in this ancestral diet study (human v. Theropithecus gelada) appeared to overfeed and increase the RS2-chomping gut populations— Bacteroides and E. rectale— in the human simulated gut. Populations that do not eat RS2 at all or proficiently—lactobacilli and bifidobacteria—were decreased with raw potato. These sub-colonies prefer dining on oligosaccharides (beans, inulin, endive, banana), RS3 and other fiber.

However, with simulated gelada baboon gut, minimal changes were observed and this is consistent with animals without salivary amylase. Only Old World primates known as ceropithecines have evolved AMY1 (salivary alpha-amylase) to consume starches from fruit seeds that they carry in their cheek pouches.

RS2 Alone Burns FAST&FURIOUSLY in Proximal Colon; But, No Change in Stool pH


textilechemrose chintan madhu

Desizing is done in order to remove the size from the warp yarns of the woven fabrics. Warp yarns are coated with sizing agents prior to weaving in order to reduce their frictional properties, decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft insertion speeds. The sizing material present on the warp yarns can act as a resist towards dyes and chemicals in textile wet processing. It must, therefore, be removed before any subsequent wet processing of the fabric.

Objects of  Desizing :
  1. To remove the starch material from the fabric.
  2. To increase the absorbency power of the fabric.
  3. To increase the affinity of the fabric to the dry chemicals.
  4. To make the fabric suitable for the next process.
  5. To increase the luster of the fabric increase of dyeing and printing. 
Factors of Size removal Efficiency :
  • Type and amount of size applied
  • Viscosity of the size in solution
  • Ease of dissolution of the size film on the yarn
  • Nature and the amount of the plasticizers
  • Fabric


jendrimamangkey JENDRI MAMANGKEY

Proteases, also known as proteinases or proteolytic enzymes, are a large group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins and polypeptides. They differ in properties such as substrate specificity, active site and catalytic mechanism, pH and temperature optima, and stability profile. There are several schemes for classifying proteases, which provide a wealth of relevant information about each protease. According to the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification, proteases belong to hydrolases (group 3), which hydrolyze peptide bonds (subgroup 4). Proteases can be classified into two major groups based on their ability to cleave N-or C-terminal peptide bonds (exopeptidases) or internal peptide bonds (endopeptidases). Although exopeptidases find commercial applications (such as leucine aminopeptidase in the debittering of protein hydrolysates), endopeptidases are industrially more important. By proteolytic mechanism, proteases are currently classified into six broad groups: serine proteases, threonine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, metalloproteases, and glutamic acid proteases. Alternatively, proteases may be classified into acidic, neutral, and alkaline (basic) proteases by the optimalpHin which they are active. The acid proteases have pHoptima in the range of 2.0–5.0 and aremainly fungal in origin. Proteases having pHoptima around 7.0 are called neutral prot